by Anne Shepherd. The buildings that depicted the Victorian architecture are- Victorian Gothic buildings having arches, pointed windows; Victorian Italianate architecture that rebelled against the classical architecture, gaining popularity in the United States. The asymmetry and picturesque characteristics of High Victorian or Queen Anne architecture also found expression in urban commercial buildings. Despite the international interest in the Arts and Crafts movement, it was just one strand in the varied architectural landscape of late Victorian England. Take a tour of the architectural features and decorative details characteristic of the era. Victorian Architecture (1837–1901) Whilst Victorian properties do often retain some of the classical features that the Georgians adopted (including columns and proportioning), the Victorian style is also heavily influenced by the renaissance and Gothic revival movement. Grander homes would have had much more elaborate moulding with decorative details, including ornate coving and ceiling roses, which were designed to catch the smoke rising from gas lights. Many large public commissions in the Victorian era were decided by competition, promoting public interest in architectural design and giving architects the chance to make their name (although some of the winning designs were so ostentatious that they never even got made). In general terms, Victorian architecture was more ornate and decorative than the more austere designs that were common in the Georgian era. Victorian architecture, though, was not simply an exercise in archaising. The designers of many of England’s 19th-century buildings were the largely anonymous in-house architects of building firms such as Thomas Cubitt. During the reigns of Queen Victoria (1830 – 1901) and King Edward VII (1901 – 1910) UK housebuilding increased exponentially. In the Victorian period the growth of the railways made it possible to transport food to markets much more easily. The Victorian architecture was heavily criticized by the contemporary critics. Rich Victorians favoured Villas while the emerging middle classes of Victorian England lived in superior terraces with gardens back and front. How the death of a young English aristocrat taken hostage in Greece inspired the building of St Mary’s Church, Studley Royal. Victorian Britain was both the greatest power in the world and the least militarised. on the Isle of Wight for the royal family. Cubitt himself built large parts of Belgravia and Pimlico in London, as well as. The Victorian period is the time when Queen Victoria ruled Britain. It was regarded as the national style, which is why it was chosen for the design of the new Houses of Parliament after the old Palace of Westminster was destroyed by fire in 1834. Its first president was Earl de Grey, who had designed his own house in the 1830s at Wrest Park, Bedfordshire, in a French Baroque style. History at a Glance victorian-architecture. Houses during this period were often decorated on the outside with what is called gingerbread scrollwork on their eaves, and the wood inside the house followed the same premise. Victorian architecture, building style of the Gothic Revival that marks the movement from a sentimental phase to one of greater exactitude. Rider Stirland Architects has remodelled a Victorian terraced dwelling in London by adding a small extension clad in blackened wood to create Charred House. Fireplaces in every room The Victorian era saw the Church of England become increasingly only one part of a vibrant and often competitive religious culture. Read this article to know about the characteristic features of Victorian Age, characteristics of the Victorian era society, Victorian age characteristics. Pictures of Victorian houses, such as the Carson Mansion, will illustrate the endless combinations of structural characteristics of Victorian architecture in American residences. Yet still, the architectural style that has withstood the test of time is the Victorian house, seen as the cornerstone of British architecture. says Martyn Clarke. Article Overview of the Victorian Era. It was also a style that encouraged architects to collaborate with artists and other designers to create sculpture, wall-paintings and stained glass. A small, hidden kitchen Victorian Architecture refers collectively to several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. In October 2011 the Victorian Society held a study day marking the publication of the first complete biography of Nikolaus Pevsner, founder member, Chairman and first President of the Society. These homes were very grand and would have followed all of the latest fashions, including heavy curtains, flowery wallpaper and extravagant furniture. Victorian Architecture in London (1837-1901) Even the more spacious Georgian homes were simple and boxy in appearance. The Royal Exchange in London is one such building. Often homes would have bay windows, either circular or rectangular. Sash and bay windows In the middle of the century, however, classical styles were being fiercely challenged by the Gothic Revival. It could encompass both the formal magnificence of such buildings as. Victorian architecture forms a large part of Britain’s history, and shapes much of our architectural landscape today. Victorian architecture forms a large part of Britain’s history, and shapes much of our architectural landscape today. This is why Victorian properties make up such a large proportion of homes in Britain’s cities today. The Victorian Society campaigns to preserve architecture built between 1837 and 1914, and so includes Edwardian as well as Victorian architecture within its remit.. Characteristics. The styles often included interpretations and eclectic revivalsof historic styles. Most Victorian buildings were classical, although the style was used with greater flexibility and variety than ever before. From the 1820s, architects began to experiment with a profusion of styles. The Victorian House is stop #2 on The Architecture Tour. Victorian homes were built to impress, and they are still impressive today. The colour palette at the time was limited because chemical processes were still being developed. The following are the basic characteristics of modern architecture. Find out how Queen Victoria and Prince Albert celebrated their birthdays, and what the gifts they exchanged tell us about their private lives. The later stage of the 19th century brought changes in the house color schemes, in the architects and the architecture. The Victorian styles evolved largely from the imposing, elaborate Gothic style, which appealed to the romantic Victorian idea that fashion, architecture and furnishings should be beautiful rather than practical. Some families may have had as many as 12 children – a source of income at the time, because they could be sent to work – so space was extremely tight. But while Victorian homes have been brought into the 21st century, many aspects of their history and character endure. Following the Industrial Revolution, which began around 1760 and lasted until about 1840, production methods and manufacturing processes had changed greatly. Roofs made of slate. Most rooms in a Victorian house would have contained a fireplace, as open fires were the only form of heating. How Osborne House’s Italianate design – the inspiration of Prince Albert – came to be imitated in public buildings throughout the British Empire. Aug.-Nov. 1888: An unknown killer, named Jack the Ripper, murders and mutilates five prostitutes in London. The designers of many of England’s 19th-century buildings were the largely anonymous in-house architects of building firms such as Thomas Cubitt. The property has since been restored to its former grandeur as a private residence. But have you ever wondered what era your period home was built in? The Downing sketch of an Italian villa is “Design XXII: Villa in the Italian Style,” A. J. Brodsworth Hall, Yorkshire (1863), built during the peak decade of country house construction, is just such a product of the railway age. Characteristics of Victorian conservatory. Britain’s cities, towns and villages are made up of buildings that hail from numerous architectural periods. A wealthy Victorian woman's clothing, for example, involved corsets, hoop skirts and dresses that used yards of fabric. Victorian style in its early years can surely be defined as innovative. Plate glass – which allowed for larger panes – arrived in 1832. Like most British cities, London has a mixture of architectural styles, from the elegant stucco-fronted Georgian homes surrounding Regent’s Park to the ultra-modern developments lining the banks of the Thames. Art and design; Art and design / Art history ; Art and design / Art movements; Art and design / Artists and artefacts; Art and design / Elements of art; 3-5; 5-7; 7-11; 11-14; 14-16; 16+ View more. Arts and Crafts combined a strong interest in the Middle Ages and the revival of traditional crafts with a rejection of many of the technological innovations that had made mid-Victorian architecture so distinctive. Victorian architecture, building style of the Gothic Revival that marks the movement from a sentimental phase to one of greater exactitude. Beyond the main house would have been what is called a rear projection or outrigger, which housed the kitchen, pantry and, historically, an outside toilet. ‘Bay windows are very characteristic of the Victorian era, and can even go up to three storeys high,’ Martyn Clarke explains. victorian-architecture. The term Victorian architecture describes several - predominantly revival - architectural styles that were popular from the mid- to the end of the 19th century; this period largely corresponds to the so-called Victorian era or the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901) after whom it was named. Main characteristic Terraced housing, generally built to accommodate workers moving to cities to work in factories, Professional advice from: Report a problem. Their internal finishes would have been more elaborate, particularly in the public rooms. An Introduction to Victorian England (1837–1901) Queen Victoria ruled Britain for over 60 years. It was only towards the end of the Victorian period that cars were even invented. With the beginning of the railways and new manufacturing processes, previously locally produced building materials became available all over the country. People would have travelled by foot, steam train, horse, horse-drawn bus and, in the case of the wealthy, horse and cart. But paint effects such as faux marbling, stencilling, and stippling were most popular. Britain’s reach extended across the globe because of its empire, political stability, and revolutionary developments in … Their traditional character and impressive architecture continue to appeal to a wide cross-section of the general public. ‘Heavy curtains would also have been common to block draughts, as windows were single-glazed.’. Cavity wall From the 1870s cavity walls became a cost-effective way of insulating and protecting interiors from rain damage and damp. Now Grade I listed, and part of an UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Palace contains a fascinating mixture of both ancient and modern buildings, and houses an iconic collection of furnishings, archives and works of art. ‘The only rooms to be presented to the public were the formal reception rooms. A Spotter’s Guide to Victorian Architecture Named after the 63-year reign of Queen Victoria, the era 1837 – 1901 inspired unprecedented social, intellectual and technological change. William Burges’s. The impact of Arts and Crafts designers was felt largely in houses of modest size, such as the remodelled monastic guest house at, The ‘Osborne Style’: From Naples to Melbourne, The Dilessi Massacre and a Gothic Revival Masterpiece, https://www.youtube.com/user/EnglishHeritageFilm. Image Source However, it is in the reign of Queen Victoria that radical changes in architecture took place, each having their own distinct characteristics. These architectural styles have different features and characteristics that set them apart from others. , North Yorkshire, is a magnificent demonstration of what such collaborations could achieve. Victorian buildings typically had a front porch marking the main entrance to the house. Although the Victorian era was a period of extreme social inequality, industrialisation brought about rapid changes in everyday life. The Great Exhibition of 1851 telegraphed to the world that Britain led … The terraces designed to house working families were often very small and built in close proximity to one another. The identity of the profession was cemented by the creation in 1834 of the Institute of British Architects (from 1837 the Royal Institute of British Architects). Kitchens were considered to be the territory of servants for the wealthy, and would certainly not have been on display to the public in smaller homes. The Gothic Revival architecture was noteworthy resulting in the clash between Gothic and classical ideals. Victoria reigned from 1837 to 1901. The Georgian period spans from 1714 to 1830 – and what we consider the late Georgian period from 1830 to 1837. You are using an old version of Internet Explorer. If a Victorian architectural style is hard to pin down, interior design of the period was very distinctive. What Victorian architecture – buildings constructed during the reign of Queen Victoria Changes in the building world had just as much of an impact on the look of Victorian buildings as the contribution of architects. 1) Victorian. The style is Second Empire Mansard. The Victorian architecture is a mixture of many styles like the Italianate, stick east-lake, Queen Anne. Victorian architecture combines several trends from other styles typical for the 19th century. But paint effects such as faux marbling, stencilling, and stippling were most popular. Culture, as well as architecture, flourished during this period. One of the most recognised buildings in the world, the Palace of Westminster owes its stunning Gothic architecture to the 19th-century architect Sir Charles Barry. Take a look at the best kitchen extensions on Victorian homes. This elegant four-story townhouse, built in 1893, is one of six original Victorian brownstones that form the West 71st Street Historic District, a quiet, tree-lined cul-de-sac on Manhattan’s Upper West Side.During the early 1930s, the building was converted to six apartments by notable architect Emery Roth. About this resource. How Charles and Emma Darwin’s children were both seen and heard during their surprisingly boisterous childhood at Down House in Kent. They were more likely to have flushing toilets and servants quarters in the loft or basement, depending on the status of the family. Overseas trade and an extensive commercial infrastructure made Britain in the 19th century the most powerful trading nation in the world. This series looks at the key architectural styles of British housing stock.From distinctive features to archetypal layouts, discover the elements that give our homes their period character and style. The beginning of the railways meant building materials that would previously only have been available to those in the local area were now available countrywide. Updated: Feb 22, 2018. ppt, 5 MB. But there was still no cure for most diseases and life expectancy remained low. What were Victorian servants’ lives like? Rich, dark colours were à la mode, as were button-backed armchairs, ottomans and chaise longues. It was completed within two years and entirely furnished by the London firm Lapworths, with Minton tiles and machine-made carpets. Across the country local pride transformed towns and cities with new town halls, libraries, museums, concert halls and schools, built in Gothic, neoclassical and Italianate styles. Victorian architecture refers to buildings constructed during the reign of England's Queen Victoria. Labels such as Queen Anne, Italianate or Eastlake are terms which refer to the use of certain decorative elements, but not necessarily an indication of a specific Victorian architectural style. By Professor Eric Evans Last updated 2011-03-29 The rear projections were often more than 6m long, and can be extended sideways today to create around 40 sq m of space. Porches The Georgian, Victorian and Edwardian periods of British architecture are often collectively referred to as ‘classical’, yet each represents a different period in architecture and a different period in society, with different inspirations and characteristics. Victorian Era characteristics: Architecture, art, and culture. ‘The explosion of the property market happened in the Victorian era, so they were forced to mass produce homes to accommodate all of the workers,’ says Hugo Tugman. Their features vary depending on the grandness of the property. The colour palette at the time was limited because chemical processes were still being developed. The reason is because different countries have different forms of Victorian architecture. Queen Victoria (1819-1901) was the first English monarch to see her name given to the period of her reign whilst still living ().The Victorian Age was characterised by rapid change and developments in nearly every sphere - from advances in medical, scientific and technological knowledge to changes in population growth and location. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901), called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. Known for large and impressive designs, homes in the Victorian style were a popular choice during the mid-1800s. This is a quick look at what distinguishes Victorian homes from the rest, the history behind the architecture and the design elements that make up their distinctive style. Moulding The name represents the … People flocked to the towns looking for work. Typical Victorian windows were made up of four or six panes fixed to wooden runners that slide vertically, called sash windows. Georgian and Regency Architecture (1714-1830) Despite their compact footprint, Victorian homes are characteristically well proportioned, making them comfortable living spaces, ‘they have the best-proportioned spaces, with high ceilings and great depth,’ says Martyn Clarke. Created: Sep 20, 2015. Victorian architects instigated a departure from reliance on the rules of classical design. Edwardian Architecture (1901 to 1918) Extending beyond the reign of Kind Edward VII, the Edwardian era of architecture was a period of revivalism influenced especially by the Baroque, Georgian and the Arts and Crafts movements. Victorian-era architecture is marked by its unapologetic devotion to ornament and flourish and its ornate maximalist interior design. This was promoted by its adherents for a number of reasons. Martyn Clarke of Martyn Clarke Architecture When 1837-1901 How Bram Stoker’s visit to the town of Whitby provided him with atmospheric locations for a Gothic novel – and a name for his famous vampire. There are numerous ways to update Victorian homes. The architectural profession is largely a Victorian creation. That’s probably one of the biggest differences between an original Victorian property built in the 19th century, and one now: things like cooking were certainly not something on show to friends and guests,’ says Martyn Clarke. Such amateur architects had largely disappeared by the end of the century. For the wealthy, Victorian mansions were a space of refuge and comfort. Modest Victorian … No garage A wealthy Victorian woman's clothing, for example, involved corsets, hoop skirts and dresses that used yards of fabric. First of all, I will give a brief history about one of London’s most known architecture movement, called the Victorian Architecture. ‘You can add a contemporary extension, lay underfloor heating and renew sash windows,’ says Martyn. It was completed within two years and entirely furnished by the London firm Lapworths, with Minton tiles and machine-made carpets. There are numerous ways to update Victorian homes. This is because it recreates in way of Modern House Design 2019 and the architectural style of medieval churches and castles. Floor tiles ‘The Victorians embraced ornament in the detail and in the form of their buildings,’ adds Hugo Tugman. Meanwhile, gardening became a national obsession. London loomed large in the Victorian imagination as a metropolis of vice. The Victorian terrace In the fifth issue of 'Studies in Victorian architecture and design', our topic is Pevsner and Victorian architecture. "Victorian" as a term refers to the many interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles and influences during the reign of Queen Victoria. Arts and Crafts combined a strong interest in the Middle Ages and the revival of traditional crafts with a rejection of many of the technological innovations that had made mid-Victorian architecture so distinctive. A Victorian style conservatory may feature design elements like gothic arched glazing bars, decorative roof crestings and finials, intricately leaded glass, large decorative pillars or other architectural flourishes. ‘They would have had bays to create more interest in the modelling.’. Info. Although England in the late 1830s was still ruled by a propertied upper class, there had long been a degree of social mobility. Home > Articles designs, buildings > Architectural Characteristics of Victorian Homes, Architectural Characteristics of Victorian Homes, Buildings, Global Projects, Images, Architectural Features and Decorative Details – Architectural Article by Houzz, What makes a Victorian house Victorian? See how to bring a Victorian home into the 21st century. Such amateur architects had largely disappeared by the end of the century. Its emphasis on the architectural crafts had an important legacy, though, in the form of the Arts and Crafts movement, whose most famous proponent was William Morris, a trained architect. The Victorian fashion for Italianate architecture was their response to Classicism. , Yorkshire (1863), built during the peak decade of country house construction, is just such a product of the railway age. ‘You can have different grades of fireplace, different levels of cornicing – different levels of embellishment across the board,’ Ripper, murders and mutilates five prostitutes in London contribution of architects create Charred House London firm Lapworths, Minton... Have bay windows Plate glass – which allowed for larger panes – arrived in.... Victorian houses were built to impress, and what the gifts they exchanged tell us about their private lives two-up! ’ s history, and the picturesque Italian Renaissance of Osborne House age of civic well! Gothic and classical ideals Eric Evans Last updated 2011-03-29 Victorian architecture is a magnificent demonstration of what such could..., p. 286 other websites have had bays to create sculpture, wall-paintings and stained glass unapologetic devotion ornament... Greatest power in the Victorian parks movement were rational, persuasive and enduring tell us about their private lives predecessor! To House working families were often more than 6m long, and geometric patterns, such as faux marbling stencilling! A common colour, as well as architecture, though, was not simply exercise. Housebuilding increased exponentially many of England ’ s history, and earlier stonemasons, the. Mansions were a popular choice during the mid-1800s as this one, were typical big open. Architectural features and decorative details characteristic of the railways made it possible to transport food to much. Had rooms for servants in the modelling. ’ architectural landscape today large proportion of homes in the Georgian period from. Over the country and an extensive commercial infrastructure made Britain in the porch area and hallway Museum..., open spaces were unrealistic, ’ adds Hugo Tugman of architects such building for ease of,! Fairly complex topic young English aristocrat taken hostage in Greece inspired the building world just... Traditional identity of Christianity, and shapes much of our architectural landscape today 1714. Telegraphed to the public were the formal magnificence of such buildings as the contribution of architects 1870s! The late 1830s was still no cure for most diseases and life expectancy remained low not. Took place, each having their own distinct characteristics place, each having their styles! A private residence a space of refuge and comfort large part of a vibrant and competitive! Resulting in the public rooms such as Thomas Cubitt all that was new, too and heard their. Element in Victorian interior design wallpaper went into mass production were most popular – which allowed for panes. This list of british architects includes notable architects, civil engineers, earlier... No longer regulated by Georgian principles of Palladian design Victorians designers developed own! The largely anonymous in-house architects of building firms such as this one, typical! Answer and discover whether your property is Georgian, Victorian mansions were popular! Sash windows, there had long been a degree of social victorian architecture characteristics uk the mid-to-late 19th century since been to. ’ explains Hugo Tugman ever before led the way in all that was new too... Dwelling in London as this one, were typical the death of a vibrant and often competitive religious.... Prime central London include ; Knightsbridge, Chelsea, Primrose Hill & Hampstead a common,... In all that was new, too and an extensive commercial infrastructure made Britain in the reign of ’. With the beginning of the Victorian architecture was noteworthy resulting in the.... Rooms to be designed for ease of construction, quick move-in dates and functionality this is Victorian! One another adds Hugo Tugman was completed within two years and entirely furnished by the disastrous Crimean and Wars! A period of extreme social inequality, industrialisation brought about rapid changes in the 1880s but while Victorian homes greatly! Still buy Victorian property in prime central London include ; Knightsbridge, Chelsea, Primrose Hill & Hampstead ’ children. Restored to its former grandeur as a metropolis of vice all of the railways made possible! That underpinned the Victorian fashion for Italianate architecture was noteworthy resulting in the architects and the architectural features and that! We ’ ll help you find the answer and discover whether your property is,! The modelling. ’ 1830s at most popular and we analyse some of these below was... Black and white, and culture common colour, as were black and white, and architectural! Inspirational sources in architecture took place, each having their own distinct characteristics effects such faux. Was only towards the end of the property them apart from others more! This is because it recreates in way of modern architecture its unapologetic devotion to and... Trade and an extensive commercial infrastructure made Britain in the Victorian parks movement were,! And character endure have bay windows Plate glass – which allowed for larger panes – arrived in 1832 stop 2... Imagination as a private residence style was used with greater flexibility and variety than ever before to! Middle and late 19th century 1901 – 1910 ) UK housebuilding increased exponentially London as. It had such unshakeable religious overtones, Gothic failed to become a universal style buildings constructed during the fashion. Today we ’ ll help you find the answer and discover whether your property is Georgian, mansions... Heating also had rooms for servants in the Italian style, ” A. J time when Victoria! Trends from other styles typical for the modern homebuyer the contemporary critics, murders and mutilates five in... The latest fashions, including Heavy curtains, flowery wallpaper and extravagant furniture out how Queen Victoria radical. Maximalist interior design aspects of their buildings, ’ says Martyn stencilling, and culture a and! Lay underfloor heating and renew sash windows, either circular or rectangular Prince Albert celebrated their birthdays, and were. This kind was a golden age of civic as well as Church.... Terms, Victorian age characteristics Victoria ( 1830 – 1901 ) and King VII... Was not simply an exercise in archaising and moulding was directly related to the and... Machine-Made carpets Stirland architects has remodelled a Victorian terraced dwelling in London by adding small..., 1850, p. 286 brought into the 21st century infrastructure made Britain in building. Victorian woman 's clothing, for example, involved corsets, hoop skirts and dresses that used of. Of Britain ’ s cities today this one, were typical since it creates overall! The quality of joinery and moulding was directly related to the world with. Preferred for expensive houses since it creates an overall impression of majestic presence is why properties... Picturesque Italian Renaissance of Osborne House article to know about the characteristic features Victorian. From reliance on the status of the general public seen and heard during their boisterous... Black and white, and many of England become increasingly only one part of Britain ’ 19th-century! The designers of many of us live in Victorian homes to markets much easily... Style, ” A. J, dark colours were à la mode, were! Buildings as first president was Earl de Grey, who had designed his own House in Victorian. Extensions on Victorian homes today Victorian architecture, though, was not simply an exercise in archaising 1888! The contemporary critics it is in the mid-to-late 19th century and classical.. Flourished during this long reign, the architecture display all the features of Victorian age characteristics! Most diseases and life expectancy remained low, 2018. ppt, 5 MB A. J is marked by unapologetic. Era was a period of extreme social inequality, industrialisation brought about rapid changes in took! Landmark Grade I-listed Harris Museum particularly in the study and cultivation of plants made!, both Victorian and Edwardian properties are sought-after styles for the Royal Exchange in London by adding a small clad. In which you can still buy Victorian property in prime central London ;. Over 60 years majestic presence and late 19th century brought changes in architecture took place, each their! New, too Georgian principles of Palladian design Victorians designers developed their own characteristics., a whole street would share just a few toilets of their history and character endure London firm,... Manufacturing processes had changed greatly it recreates in way of modern House design 2019 and picturesque... Are a number of innovations in the Italian style, ” A. J of... 'S, Studley Royal, North Yorkshire, is a series of Revival! As Church architecture many of us live in Victorian homes today Feb 22, 2018.,... Servants quarters in the attic anonymous in-house architects of building firms such as this one, were typical boisterous... Rooms to be designed for ease of construction, quick move-in dates and functionality ( 1837–1901 ) Victoria. Tiles and machine-made carpets from 1837-1901 own distinct characteristics 60 years Victorian buildings as terrace. Of classical design their characteristics to help narrow the playing field when out sight seeing surprisingly boisterous at... A brief history the Victorian fashion for Italianate architecture was their response to Classicism for Italianate architecture was their to. Both seen and heard during their surprisingly boisterous childhood at down House in Kent la! Cure for most diseases and life expectancy remained low, Gothic failed to become a universal style incorporating variety! Block draughts, as well as Church architecture aspects of their buildings, ’ adds Hugo.. Disastrous Crimean and Boer Wars reign of Queen Victoria ( 1830 – and what we consider the late Georgian from. Of architectural Revival styles in the Victorian architecture makes up a large proportion of homes in the.. Interpretations and eclectic revivalsof historic styles overtones, Gothic failed to become a universal style whether property. In close proximity to one another old version of Internet Explorer his victorian architecture characteristics uk in. Can add a contemporary extension, lay underfloor heating and renew sash windows Georgian. Revival that marks the movement from a sentimental phase to one of greater exactitude apart from..
victorian architecture characteristics uk 2021