[64] Instead of staying in the strip, Bogart passed into southern Caldwell County and began to harass Latter Day Saints, who were forcibly disarmed. [117] Boggs survived, but Mormons came under immediate suspicion especially of the alleged failed assassination attempt by Orrin Porter Rockwell of the Mormon Danites. On the first night of the march out of Carroll County, two Mormon women died. [89], Joseph Smith Jr attempted to negotiate with Lucas, but it became clear that Lucas considered his conditions to be non-negotiable. [67][68], Fearing attack, many citizens of Ray County moved their wives and children across the Missouri River for safety. [13], Mormon petitions and lawsuits failed to bring any satisfaction: the non-Mormons in Jackson refused to allow the Mormons to return and reimbursement for confiscated and damaged property was refused. On November 1, 1838, Smith surrendered at Far West, the church's headquarters, ending the war. In Livingston County, a group of armed men forced Asahel Lathrop from his home, where they held his ill wife and children prisoner. McBrier's house was among those burned. When Joseph Smith and volunteers rode to Adam-ondi-Ahman to assess the situation, they discovered there were no truths to the rumors. [86], Colonel Hinkle rode to the church leaders in Far West and informed them of the offered terms. Although county officials could only legally act within the county, this judge authorized Hinkle to defend Latter Day Saint settlements in neighboring Daviess County. [57] Millport, which at time was the largest city in the county and the center for trade, never recovered from the Mormon burnings, and became a ghost town. "Autobiographical Remarks by Ebenezer Robinson (1832–1843)". Gen. Doniphan's Recollections of the Troubles of that Early Time. He stated that General Parks reported to him that "a portion of the men from Carroll County, with one piece of artillery, are on their march for Daviess County, where it is thought the same lawless game is to be played over, and the Mormons to be driven from that county and probably from Caldwell County." When the Missourian raiders approached the settlement on the afternoon of October 30, some 30 to 40 Latter Day Saint families were living or encamped there. The "Gallatin County Election Day Battle" was a skirmish between Mormon and non-Mormon settlers in the newly formed Daviess County, Missouri, on August 6, 1838. [75], Meanwhile, exaggerated reports from the Battle of Crooked River made their way to Missouri's governor, Lilburn Boggs. This triggered a brawl between the bystanders. "If found, they will be shot down like dogs," warned Hyrum. Many of Boggs's constituents felt that he had mis-managed the situation, by failing to intervene earlier in the crisis, and then by overreacting on the basis of partial and incorrect information. The Missourians had the advantage of position and fired, but the Mormons continued to advance. The extermination order is the name commonly used to refer to an executive order signed on October 27, 1838, by Lilburn W. Boggs, the governor of Missouri during the Mormon-Missouri War of 1838. Mormon leaders appealed to the state legislature to overturn the requirement that they leave the state, but the legislature tabled the issue until a date well after that when the Mormons would have left the state. [32] [33] William Peniston, a candidate for the state legislature, made disparaging statements about the Mormons, calling them "horse-thieves and robbers", [34] and warned them not to vote in the election. The Danites were a fraternal organization founded by Latter Day Saint members in June 1838, in the town of Far West, Caldwell County, Missouri.During their period of organization in Missouri, the Danites operated as a vigilante group and took a central role in the events of the 1838 Mormon War.There is no evidence that the Danites existed after 1838. Mormon settlement increased as hundreds of members from Kirtland and elsewhere poured into Missouri. The conflict continued until early November, when the outnumbered Mormons surrendered and agreed to leave the state. In this major new interpretation of those events, LeSueur argues that while a number of prejudices and fears stimulated … A number of Missourians left the scene to obtain guns and ammunition and swore that they would "kill all the Saints they could find, or drive them out of Daviess County, sparing neither men, women or children". "[81] Other Latter Day Saint witnesses remembered that Smith said to "beg like a dog for peace. The militia promptly arrested Smith and the other leaders. [25][26], At the same time Mormons, including Sampson Avard, began to organize a secret society known as the Danites, whose purposes included obeying the church presidency "right or wrong" and expelling the dissenters from Caldwell County. [19], In the eyes of many non-Mormon citizens (including Alexander Doniphan),[10] these settlements outside of Caldwell County were a violation of the compromise. [104], It is also believed that Smith's imprisonment had become an embarrassment, and that an escape would be convenient for Boggs and the rest of the Missouri political establishment. [80] [30] The text of this speech was endorsed by Joseph Smith, who appeared at the event and participated in the raising of a liberty pole. [108] Mormon residents were harassed and attacked by angry residents who were no longer restrained by militia officers. [53] On October 18, these Mormons began to act as vigilantes and marched under arms in three groups to Daviess County. Although he had refrained from stopping the illegal anti-Mormon siege of De Witt, he now mustered 2,500 state militia to put down what he perceived to be a Mormon insurrection against the state. [58], During the days that followed, Latter Day Saint vigilantes under the direction and encouragement of Lyman Wight drove Missourians who lived in outlying farms from their homes, which were similarly plundered and burned. In his famous Salt Sermon, Sidney Rigdon announced that the dissenters were as salt that had lost its savor and that it was the duty of the faithful to cast the dissenters out to be trodden beneath the feet of men. [89] Smith believed that Hinkle had betrayed him,[92] but Hinkle maintained his innocence and claimed that he was following Smith's orders. One historian notes that Governor Boggs was running for election against several violent men, all capable of the deed, and that there was no particular reason to suspect Rockwell of the crime. He stated that General Parks reported to him that "a portion of the men from Carroll County, with one piece of artillery, are on their march for Daviess County, where it is thought the same lawless game is to be played over, and the Mormons to be driven from that county and probably from Caldwell County." Fearing attack, many citizens of Ray County moved their wives and children across the Missouri River for safety. The day has gone by when masses of men can be outlawed, and driven from society to the wilderness, unprotected. The Far West militia was marched out of the city and forced to turn over their weapons to General Lucas. Doniphan refused to obey the order, replying: It is cold-blooded murder. The gun was found to have been stolen from a local shopkeeper, who identified "that hired man of Ward's" as the most likely culprit. [3][84] When survivors of the massacre reached Far West, the reports of the savagery of the attack played a significant part in the decision of the Mormons to surrender. If they choose to remain, we must be content. Alexander L. Baugh, A Call to Arms: The 1838 Mormon Defense of Northern Missouri, BYU Studies, 2000. Overwhelmingly, these claims are contradicted by the majority of both Missourian and Latter Day Saint testimony (which implicate the Mormons in the burnings) and also by the evidence of the looted property found in the possession of Latter Day Saints. [62] Based on the available evidence, LeSueur estimates that Mormons were responsible for the burning of fifty homes or shops and the displacement of one hundred non-Mormon families. Agitation against the Latter Day Saints had become particularly fierce in the sparsely settled counties north and east of Caldwell County. John Corrill, one of the Mormon leaders, remembered: In 1837, problems at the church's headquarters in Kirtland, Ohio, centering around the Kirtland Safety Society bank, led to schism. Major General Samuel D. Lucas marched the state militia to Far West and laid siege to the Mormon headquarters. [37], Black and others filed complaints against Smith and the other identifiable Mormon participants. Judge Josiah Morin and Samuel McBrier, both considered friendly to the Mormons, both fled Daviess County after being threatened. While Mormons were viewed as deluded or worse, many Missourians agreed with the sentiment expressed in the Southern Advocate: By what color of propriety a portion of the people of the State, can organize themselves into a body, independent of the civil power, and contravene the general laws of the land by preventing the free enjoyment of the right of citizenship to another portion of the people, we are at a loss to comprehend. On October 24, Marsh and Hyde left the fellowship of their fellow Latter Day Saints and traveled to Richmond, in Ray County. He surmised that the perpetrator had fired upon Boggs and lost his firearm in the night when the weapon recoiled due to its unusually large shot. [27] Two days after Rigdon preached his Salt Sermon, 80 prominent Mormons including Hyrum Smith signed the so-called Danite Manifesto, which warned the dissenters to "depart or a more fatal calamity shall befall you." The exact circumstances that allowed for him to escape are not certain. Having taken control of the Missourian settlements, the Mormons plundered the property and burned the stores and houses. My brigade shall march for Liberty to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock, and if you execute those men, I will hold you responsible before an earthly tribunal, so help me God! Smith's followers, commonly known as Mormons, began to settle in Jackson County in 1831 to "build up" the city of Zion. The Mormon War is a name sometimes given to the 1838 conflict which occurred between Latter Day Saints and their neighbors in northwestern Missouri.This conflict is also sometimes referred to as the Missouri Mormon War to differentiate it from the Utah Mormon War (also known as the "Utah War") and the less well known Illinois Mormon War. [44], As tensions built in Daviess County, other counties began to respond to Carroll County's request for assistance in expelling the Mormons from their county. [1][42], Sentiment among the anti-Mormon segment of Carroll County's population hardened, and some began to take up arms. [21], The earlier settlers saw expansion of Mormon communities outside of Caldwell County as a political and economic threat. Although he had refrained from stopping the illegal anti-Mormon siege of De Witt, he now mustered 2,500 State Militia to put down the Mormon insurrection against the state. William Bowman, one of the guards, was dragged by his hair across the town square. Even people who otherwise would have had no sympathy for the Mormons were appalled by Boggs's Executive Order and the treatment of the Mormons by the mobs. One historian notes that Governor Boggs was running for election against several violent men, all capable of the deed, and that there was no particular reason to suspect Rockwell of the crime. In October 1833, anti-Mormon mobs drove the Mormons from Jackson County.[11]. General Parks arrived with the Ray County militia on October 6, but his order to disperse was ignored by the mob. Exaggerated initial reports indicated that nearly all of Bogart's company had been killed. [12], At the same time, a leadership struggle between the church presidency and Missouri leaders led to the excommunication of several high-placed Mormon leaders, including Oliver Cowdery (one of the Three Witnesses and the church's original "second elder"), David Whitmer (another of the Three Witnesses and Stake President of the Missouri Church), as well as John Whitmer, Hiram Page, William Wines Phelps and others. Joseph Smith and the other arrested leaders were held overnight under guard in General Lucas' camp, where they were left exposed to the elements. The refinement, the charity of our age, will not brook it.[107]. The 1838 Mormon War, also known as the Missouri Mormon War, ... 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